Why Do We Invest? Investor Studies – Going Public Lawyers

Investor Studies - Securities Lawyer 101


Why do we invest? Below are individual investor studies conducted by researchers from multiple University’s and Agencies along with the FINRA Investor Education Foundation.

Individual Differences in Susceptibility to Investment Fraud (PDF 1.8 MB)

This study by researchers from Stanford and Yale used multilevel data (e.g., fMRI, survey, demographic) to examine three hypotheses: 1) whether investment fraud victims exhibit more cognitive limitations than non-victims; 2) whether investment fraud victims prefer more financial risk than non-victims; and 3) whether investment fraud victims have less behavioral control in high-stakes scenarios than non-victims. The study did not find support for the first two hypotheses, but victims did report higher impulsiveness and demonstrated less cognitive flexibility, which supported the third hypothesis.

The Financial Capability of Young Adults—A Generational View (PDF 161 KB)

Prepared by the FINRA Investor Education Foundation, this study explores the financial capability of millennials relative to other generations and examines differences in financial capability among various demographic groups within the millennial generation. The study finds that in the wake of the Great Recession millennials are struggling financially—but it is millennial households with dependents that are struggling the most. It is based on data from the 2012 National Financial Capability Study. (Released 2014)

Financial Fraud and Fraud Susceptibility in the United States (PDF 417 KB)

It’s estimated that consumer financial fraud cost Americans over $50 billion a year, and this number doesn’t include the money used for its prevention or the social and emotional cost fraud imposes on Americans every year. The FINRA Investor Education Foundation’s research report contributes to a deeper understanding of financial fraud by gauging exposure and response to traditional and Internet-based scams, and the relationships between susceptibility to fraud and various demographics. (Released 2013)

The Financial Fragility of American Families (PDF 144 KB)

This brief, prepared by Dr. Lusardi of the Global Financial Literacy Excellent Center at George Washington University, describes how American families are positioned to confront economic shocks and the resources they may—or may not—have available to help them weather crisis such as job loss or reduced property value (released 2013).

Financial Literacy Around the World (FLAT World) (PDF 137 KB)

This research brief, prepared by the George Washington University’s Global Center for Financial Literacy, combines data from the National Financial Capability Study with similar data obtained from eight other countries and compares financial literacy levels across their populations. The research finds that financial literacy levels are fairly low across countries and that certain groups manage with very weak levels of financial literacy regardless of location. The brief highlights these and other findings, discusses implications and suggests that it is important to foster financial education in schools (released 2013).

Softening the Blow: Income Shocks, Mortgage Payments and Emergency Savings (PDF 140 KB)

Prepared by the FINRA Investor Education Foundation, this study finds that households without emergency savings are more likely to experience mortgage payment problems when faced with an income shock. In addition, minorities and lower-income Americans were found to be more vulnerable to unexpected drops in income (released March 2013). The study is based on data from the 2009 National Financial Capability Study.

How Employers Can Help New Hires Save for Retirement (PDF 381 KB)

A report from researchers at North Carolina State University and The George Washington University describing the top 10 best practices to help new employees build long-term financial security (released September 2012)

Testing Strategies to Increase Saving and Retention in IDA Programs (PDF 586 KB)

A fact sheet describing the preliminary findings of a research project being conducted by a team from The Ohio State University, Yale University, Cornell University and Carnegie Mellon University (released July 2012)

Using Commitment Contracts to Reduce Debt and Increase Savings

Two research briefs prepared by Innovations for Poverty Action (released 2012)

  • Project Evaluation: Borrow Less Tomorrow (PDF 1.7 MB)
  • Project Evaluation: Commitment Savings (PDF 1.4 MB)

Women, Financial Literacy and Credit Card Behavior

Prepared by the FINRA Investor Education Foundation, this study finds that women with low levels of financial literacy were more likely to engage in costly credit card behaviors than men with low financial literacy. The findings suggest that increasing financial literacy can improve credit card management and reduce or eliminate gender-based differences in credit card behavior (released April 2012). The study is based on data from the 2009 National Financial Capability Study.

  • In Our Best Interest: Women, Financial Literacy and Credit Card Behavior (PDF 216 KB)

Developing a Personal Finance Program for Students at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (PDF 502 KB)

The United Negro College Fund Special Programs Corporation developed research-based recommendations for the implementation of effective personal finance programs for students at the nation’s Historically Black Colleges and Universities (released April 2012).

Gain and Loss Learning Differentially Contribute to Life Financial Outcomes

Prepared by a team of researchers from the Stanford University Department of Psychology and the Kellogg School of Management, Northwestern University (released 2011)

Critical Choices: How Colleges Can Help Students and Families Make Better Decisions about Private Loans (PDF 2 MB)

Prepared by The Project on Student Debt (released July 2011)

The Development of Superior Personal Investing Performance

Under a grant to Florida State University, a team of researchers led by Dr. David Eccles identified personal financial behaviors associated with retirement wealth in households matched for lifetime income. Results revealed key differences in financial behaviors between householders with low and high financial outcomes at retirement.

  • Research Summary: The Development of Superior Personal Investing Performance (PDF 47 KB)
  • The Relationship Between Retirement Wealth and Householders’ Lifetime Personal Financial and Investing Behaviors(PDF 519 KB) (Released 2013)

The research team also produced an informational brochure and workbook (in both English and Spanish) based on the findings of the project.

  • Brochure in English (PDF 592 KB) | en Español (PDF 588 KB)
  • Workbook in English (PDF 804 KB) | en Español (PDF 731 KB)

Pitfalls of Investor Decision-Making in the Social Interaction Context

Prepared by researchers from Princeton University’s Department of Psychology and Public Affairs (released 2010)

  • Preliminary Report on the Problems of Unwarranted Trust, Excited Decision-Making and Social Pressure (PDF 39 KB)

See also the related article, “Fast Thought Speed Induces Risk Taking,” by Jesse J. Chandler and Emily Pronin (2012).

A Study of U.S. Financial Literacy: Evidence and Policy Implications

Prepared by Dartmouth College and NBER Member Professor Annamaria Lusardi and various co-authors including Harvard Professor Peter Tufano and Wharton Professor Oliva Mitchell, among others.

  • Financial Literacy Among the Young: Evidence and Implications for Consumer Policy, January 2010 (PDF 152 KB)
  • How Ordinary Consumers Make Complex Economic Decisions: Financial Literacy and Retirement Readiness, March 2010(PDF 187 KB)
  • Financial Literacy: Evidence and Implications for Consumer Education, November 2009 (PDF 155 KB)
  • Teach Workers About the Perils of Debt, November 2009 (PDF 1 MB)
  • Financial Literacy in the United States, June 2009 (PDF 70 KB)
  • Debt Literacy, Financial Experiences and Overindebtedness, March 2009 (PDF 305 KB)
  • Just the Facts: Financial Literacy Among the Young, December 2008 (PDF 26 KB)
  • Just the Facts: Debt Literacy, Financial Experience, and Overindebtedness, December 2008 (PDF 28 KB)

Individual Differences in Financial Risk Taking Across the Lifespan

Prepared by a team of researchers from the Stanford University Department of Psychology and the Kellogg School of Management, Northwestern University (released 2010)

Managing Risk and Minimizing Fees

Prepared by a team of researchers from the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) (released 2010)

  • Can Psychological Aggregation Manipulations Affect Portfolio Risk-Taking? (PDF 467 KB)
  • How Does Simplified Disclosure Affect Individuals’ Mutual Fund Choices? (PDF 381 KB)

Online Investment Education for Farm Families: Audience/Marketing Analysis (PDF 589 KB)

Research conducted by the USDA Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service, and eXtension, as part of a project to create an online investment education program to meet the needs of modern farm households (released 2009)

Using Nonfinancial Measures to Assess the Risk of Fraudulent Financial Reporting and Improve Retail Investor Protection

Prepared by a team of researchers at North Carolina State University, George Mason University and Brigham Young University (released 2009)

  • Using Nonfinancial Measures to Assess Fraud Risk (PDF 160 KB)
  • Investor Perceptions about Financial Statement Fraud and their Use of Red Flags (PDF 155 KB)
  • How Do Nonprofessional Investors React to Fraud Red Flags? (PDF 117 KB)
  • Auditors’ Reactions to Inconsistencies between Financial and Nonfinancial Measures (PDF 402 KB)

National Financial Capability Study

In consultation with the U.S. Treasury Department and the President’s Advisory Council on Financial Literacy, the FINRA Investor Education Foundation commissioned this study to establish a baseline measure of the ability of Americans to manage their money (released 2009)

Evaluation of the Stock Market GameTM

Results of a randomized controlled trial undertaken by Learning Point Associates showing substantial gains for student achievement in mathematics and financial literacy (released 2009)

  • Read the news release (PDF 65 KB) and topline findings (PDF 268 KB)
  • Summary report (PDF 374 KB)
  • Full report with appendices (PDF 3 MB)

Employer-Provided Retirement Planning Programs (PDF 1 MB)

Prepared by researchers from North Carolina State University (released 2011). For additional information about this research, visit the project website.

Investors’ Use of Disclosure Information

Prepared by researchers at the University of Central Florida and Bentley University (released 2009)

  • Where Do Investors Prefer to Find Nonfinancial Information? (PDF 26 KB)
  • The Impact of Information Tagging in the MD&A on Investor Decision Making: Implications for XBRL (PDF 91 KB)
  • Understanding Professional and Non-Professional Investors’ Information Requirements (PDF 192 KB)
  • The Impact of Risk on Investor Decision Processes and Outcomes in the Post-SOX Environment (PDF 153 KB)

The Use of Non-Financial Information: What Do Investors Want? (PDF 423 KB)

Prepared by researchers at the Boston College Center for Corporate Citizenship (released 2008)

An Experimental Study of Annuity Choice (PDF 8 MB)

Prepared by researchers from the College of William and Mary (released 2008)

Exploring Solutions to the Fund Assortment Problem (PDF 489 KB)

Prepared by researchers from Rutgers University School of Business (released 2008)

Effects of Visual Primes on Improving Web Disclosure to Investors (PDF 818 KB)

Prepared by researchers from University of Connecticut-Stamford (released 2007)

Overcoming Biases to Promote Wise Investing (PDF 376 KB)

Prepared by researchers from Princeton University’s Department of Psychology and Public Affairs (released 2007)

Racial and Ethnic Differences in Stock Ownership, two papers from researchers at The Ohio State University published in 2007 and 2008

  • Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Risky Asset Ownership: A Decomposition Analysis (released 2007; PDF 159 KB)
  • The Decrease in Stock Ownership by Minority Households (released 2008; PDF 111 KB)

Who Will Own Our Children?, report (PDF 319 KB) from the National Association of State Boards of Education about financial literacy in K-12 education (released 2006)

Gender Differences in Investment Behavior, survey analysis (PDF 924 KB) conducted by researchers from Iowa State University and The Ohio State University (released 2006)

  • Examining the Investment Behavior of High-Income Women in America (released 2007; PDF 56 KB)
  • Comparing Search Strategies for Investment Information in America (released 2007; PDF 247 KB)
  • Exploring the Investment Behavior of Minorities in America (released 2007; PDF 58 KB)
  • Examining the Investor Confidence of Minorities in America (released 2007: PDF 52 KB)

Off the Hook Again: Understanding Why the Elderly Are Victimized by Economic Fraud Crimes, survey results and analysis prepared for WISE Senior Services by The Consumer Fraud Research Group (released 2006)

Mutual Fund Purchase Practicessurvey results and analysis (PDF 296 KB) prepared by the Consumer Federation of America (released 2006)

For further information about this securities law blog post, please contact Brenda Hamilton, Securities Attorney at 101 Plaza Real S, Suite 202 N, Boca Raton, Florida, 561-416-8956, by email at [email protected] or visit  www.securitieslawyer101.com.   This securities law blog post is provided as a general informational service to clients and friends of Hamilton & Associates Law Group and should not be construed as, and does not constitute legal advice on any specific matter, nor does this message create an attorney-client relationship.  Please note that the prior results discussed herein do not guarantee similar outcomes.

Hamilton & Associates | Securities Lawyers
Brenda Hamilton, Securities Attorney
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Boca Raton, Florida 33432
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