The SEC’s complaint alleges that Penn West Petroleum Ltd., which has since been renamed Obsidian Energy Ltd., fraudulently moved hundreds of millions of dollars in expenses from operating expense accounts to capital expenditure accounts. This alleged fraudulent movement caused Penn West to artificially reduce its operating costs by as much as 20 percent in certain periods, which falsely improved reported metrics for oil extraction efficiency and profitability. Penn West was one of Canada’s largest oil producers at the time.